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FMS ALLIANCE Martial Arts - Hapkido (Korean Self Defense Martial Art)
Hapkido is a martial art of Korean origin. Its name means literally "The way of coordination and internal power." Hapkido is a complete martial art in that it consists of: dynamic striking and kicking techniques, with hard and soft style deflection techniques, throws, takedowns, ground-fighting, and extensive joint locking techniques. Hapkido is the combination of two Korean Martial Arts - Yool Sool which comes from the Japanese art known as Daito-Ryu Aiki-Jutsu and Tae Kyon which is an ancient Korean Kicking Skill that was widespread during the time of the Three Kingdoms and lately had modern influences from other martial arts sources.

Daito-Ryu Aiki-Jutsu

Daito-Ryu can be traced all the way back to Senwa Tenno who is considered by many to be the very first in the Daito Ryu line. The techniques were basically the combat methods of the Minamoto clan that had been refined and perfected by General Yoshimitsu. The General is known to have studied the cadavers of criminals to understand human anatomy. The techniques of General Yoshimitsu were passed down and then combined with the Aizu techniques to become what is now known as Daito Ryu.

The origin of Daito-Ryu starts with Soemon Takeda (1758-1853). Soemon Takeda taught a system called aiki-in-ho-yo, "the aiki system of yin and yang," which he passed on to Tanomo Saigo. Saigo also had training in Misoguchi-Ryu swordsmanship and Koshu-ryu military science.

hapkido

hapkido

Tanomo participated in the Boshin war.

Certain that Tanomo had been killed in a battle with the Imperial forces and determined to preserve the honor of the family name, his mother, wife, 5 daughters, and other members of his family committed ritual suicide. However, Tanomo's life had been spared.

Tanomo then changed his name to Hoshina and served as a Shinto priest in various districts and later adopted Shiro Shida as his disciple-son.

Shiro was extremely talented and mastered the Ryu's many techniques, later applying them with great success during the foundation of Jigoro Kano's Kodokan school of Judo.

However, Shiro abandoned the practice of both systems, moved to Nagasakai and devoted himself to classical archery the rest of his life.

Tanomo had another heir to the Daito-Ryu, Sokaku Takeda (1860-1943), Soemon's grandson.

Sokaku was no novice to the martial arts.

At an early age he had obtained teaching licenses in Ono-ha Itto-Ryu swordsmanship and Hozion spear-fighting. Sokaku had also studied with the swordsman-saint Kenkichi Sakakibara of the Jikishin-kage-ryu.

Sokaku traveled widely, attracting a large number of students; he was reputed to have around thirty thousand students and nearly every budoka of note in that era was his student in one way or the other.

One of these was his manservant Tatujutu Yoshida (Choi Yong Sool).

hapkido
hapkido

Tanomo had another heir to the Daito-Ryu, Sokaku Takeda (1860-1943), Soemon's grandson. Sokaku was no novice to the martial arts.

At an early age he had obtained teaching licenses in Ono-ha Itto-Ryu swordsmanship and Hozion spear-fighting. Sokaku had also studied with the swordsman-saint Kenkichi Sakakibara of the Jikishin-kage-ryu.

Sokaku traveled widely, attracting a large number of students; he was reputed to have around thirty thousand students and nearly every budoka of note in that era was his student in one way or the other. One of these was his manservant Tatujutu Yoshida (Choi Yong Sool).

Grand Master Choi, Yong Sool

 

In 1949, at the age of 13, Ji Han-Jae began his martial arts training in Yoo Sool under Choi Yong-Sool. He trained full time with Choi until 1956 when Ji moved back to his home city.

Ji began training with a gentleman he called Taoist Lee at the age of 18. Lee trained Ji primarily in meditation, staff, short stick, and Tae Kyon kicking. During this period Ji learned spiritual power from a lady monk known only to him as "grandma."

In Andong, Ji Han-Jae, a 3rd Dan at the time, opened his first dojang which he called An Moo Kwan and began to teach Yoo Kwon Sool. After teaching for about 9 months he decided to move to Seoul. While in Seoul he stayed in a boarding house in Wang Shim Ri. While in Seoul Ji called his Dojang the Sung Moo Kwan.

In 1958, Ji moved his school to Joong Boo Shi Jang where he continued teaching until 1960. It was during this period that Ji began to piece together the Yoo Kwon Sool teachings of Grandmaster Choi and the meditation and kicking techniques of Taoist Lee, along also with the spiritual lessons he had learned from "grandma."

hapkido

 

GMaster Ji Han – Jae Biography (there are other versions)

He is said to have developed the name Hapkido for this art. He had originally thought of calling it Hapki-Yoo-Kwon-Sool, but decided that it was too long of a name. The name Hapkido was chosen in 1959 and has been used ever since.

Ji Han-Jae claims to have given the name Hapkido to his teacher Choi Yong-Sool to use out of respect. However, Choi's student Suh Bok-Sub claims that Choi was already using the name by that time. Records in this regard are sketchy and no definite answers are to be found.

In the early 60's Park Chung-Hee lifted import restrictions that banned Japanese goods from Korea. It was at this time Ji found a book about Aikido. Ji found the Japanese Spelling of Aikido was the same as Hapkido. Discouraged that a Japanese art had the same name Ji dropped the Hap calling his art simply Kido.

On September 2, 1963 the Korean Government granted a Charter to the Korea Kido Association.

This association was granted the right to regulate and supervise the standards of teaching as well as the promotion requirements of Black Belts in 31 different Korean martial arts.

The first chairman of this association was Choi Yong-Sool. Later on due to many differences in politics and philosophies Ji Han Jae left the Kido Association and returned to calling his art Hapkido.

 

Picture below and listing of many of today's Grandmasters

hapkido grandmasters

From bottom left to right:

Lee Tae-Jun, Myung Kwang-Sik, Han Bong Soo (The Founder of the International Hapkido), Choi Yong-Sul (The Founder of Hapkido), Ji Han-Jae (Grand Master of Shin-Moo Hapkido), Song Young-Kil (Korean Hapkido Federation Technical Director), Kim Deok-In (The Founder of the Duk Moo and Director of the Competition for the Korean Hapkido Federation), Kwon Tae-Man (The Founder of International Daemoo Hapkido Martial Art Association).

From behind left to right:

Myung Jae-Nam (Grand Master of the International Hapkido Federation), Unknown, Hal Bok, Yum Jong-Ho,Kim Jong-Taek (Current Secretary General of the Korean Hapkido Federation),Kim Jong-Jin (Previous Secretary General of the Korean Hapkido Federation),Unknown, Unknown, Kim Hung-Su (The Grand Master of the Yun Moo Academy), Unknown.

   
 
     
 

 

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